In one lab experiment (pdf), women primed to think about going on a date were subsequently more likely to say they would socially exclude a woman who slighted them.
Another experiment (by Vaillancourt herself) found that female participants were much more “bitchy” toward a sexily-dressed assistant than the same young woman in dowdy attire.
Keyed to the relative time scale are examples of index fossils, the forms of life which existed during limited periods of geologic time and thus are used as guides to the age of the rocks in which they are preserved.
William "Strata" Smith, a civil engineer and surveyor, was well acquainted with areas in southern England where "limestone and shales are layered like slices of bread and butter." His hobby of collecting and cataloging fossil shells from these rocks led to the discovery that certain layers contained fossils unlike those in other layers.
However, human beings love to see factual precision, and we want to know how old something is.
Please remember that all dating methods, even those termed "absolute," are subject to margins of error. That is a very small amount of possible error range. Modern studies almost always use two or more methods to confirm dating work and to build confidence in the results obtained.
But a new paper suggests that gossip and cattiness among adolescent girls serve as the female form of competition, and have evolved to increase a female’s sex appeal above her peers.
The estimates of C stored in AFSs range from 0.29 to 15.21 Mg ha up to 1-m depth in the soil.Hutton, a Scottish geologist, first proposed formally the fundamental principle used to classify rocks according to their relative ages.He concluded, after studying rocks at many outcrops, that each layer represented a specific interval of geologic time.Overview of Methods Superposition Stratigraphy Dendrochronology Radiocarbon C14 Radiometric Dating Methods Obsidian Hydration Dating Paleomagnetic/Archaeomagnetic Luminescence Dating Methods Amino Acid Racemization Fission-track Dating Ice Cores Varves Pollens Corals Cation Ratio Fluorine Dating Patination Oxidizable Carbon Ratio Electron Spin Resonance Cosmic-ray Exposure Dating This is an excellent overview of dating methodologies, and is a chapter in a textbook on Archaeology.You may find it useful for the clear definitions, and for excellent links on a variety of topic.When it comes to choosing mates, the standard formula is that males compete to impress females.Female competition for mates tends to get less attention.Instead, social exclusion and talking behind someone’s back allowed women to work out conflicts without endangering their bodies.Not only does such cattiness make the targeted women too sad and anxious to compete in the sexual market, some studies suggest it can make men find rivals less attractive — provided the badmouthing comes from a cute woman, Vaillancourt said.Agroforestry—the practice of growing trees and crops in interacting combinations—is recognized worldwide as an integrated approach to sustainable land-use.It is estimated to be practiced over 1 billion hectares in developing countries, and to a lesser extent in the industrialized countries.