Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II.
In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt was established.
During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party, a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal.
Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force.
The partial disruption comes on the back of a three-month nationwide state of emergency after terrorist attacks on Palm Sunday (April 9) killed 47 people in two churches.
The regressive emergency law allows authorities sweeping powers including monitoring personal communications without judicial oversight and shuttering media outlets.
The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country.Between 19, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisers, at a reduced level.The legal status of Egypt had been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. El-Mamlaka l-Maṣreyya, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.A controversial cyber-security law has been on the books for a few months and the NTRA has signaled its tacit support for it.Earlier this month, an Alexandria lawyer was sentenced under a newly legislated counter-terrorism law to ten years in prison and a five-year ban from using the internet for Facebook posts deemed insulting to president Abdel Fattah El Sisi.Ahmed Abdel Naby, 23, administrator of Internet Revolution Egypt Facebook page boasting over a million followers told Quartz “the latest blocks shows that the authorities are melding national security and business concerns.At this rate, no one will be able to make calls freely”.Egypt has disrupted voice over internet protocol (Vo IP) services this week for users who use messaging apps like Apple’s Face Time, Viber, Skype, Facebook Messenger and Whats App.The key reason is ostensibly security concerns, but there’s also a suspicion there are economic incentives for local telcos who have complained to regulators about free calls via such apps.