One way of classifying predators is by trophic level.Carnivores that feed on heterotrophs are secondary consumers; their predators are tertiary consumers, and so forth.Intraguild predators are those that kill and eat other predators of different species at the same trophic level, and thus that are potential competitors.
When prey have a clumped (uneven) distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly.
Unlike typical parasites, they always kill their hosts, but often not instantly.
Parasitoid wasps are solitary insects that live a free life as adults, laying eggs on or in other insects such as lepidopteran caterpillars.
Predation is often, though not always, carnivory, one of several heterotrophic consumer-resource interactions.
Predation strategies can be classified by trophic level or diet, by specialization, and by the predator's interaction with prey.