For instance, geologists can now determine the origin of rock with incredible precision, by analyzing its ratio of isotopes of certain elements.If researchers can one day figure out how to test the isotopes in the limestone dust found on the shroud, they could say with greater certainty whether the shroud was ever in Jerusalem, he said.
"In my opinion, it is hard to believe that in the past centuries, in a historical interval spanning the medieval period, different subjects — such as priests, monks or nuns, as well [as] devotees and other subjects of Indian ancestry — have had the possibility to come in contact with the shroud in France and/or Turin," Barcaccia said."Apart from ruling out the United States of America as the source for the shroud, it leaves just about everything else open," Farey said.As for the possible Indian manufacture, it's just as likely that Indian DNA got onto the object during its 20th-century testing, he said.Long-standing debate On its face, the Shroud of Turin is an unassuming piece of twill cloth that bears traces of blood and a darkened imprint of a man's body. However, the Catholic Church only officially recorded its existence in A. 1353, when it showed up in a tiny church in Lirey, France. (Isotopes are forms of an element with a different number of neutrons.) But critics argued that the researchers used patched-up portions of the cloth to date the samples, which could have been much younger than the rest of the garment.Though the Catholic Church has never taken an official stance on the object's authenticity, tens of thousands flock to Turin, Italy, every year to get a glimpse of the object, believing that it wrapped the bruised and bleeding body of Jesus Christ after his crucifixion. 1204, the cloth was smuggled to safety in Athens, Greece, where it stayed until A. Centuries later, in the 1980s, radiocarbon dating, which measures the rate at which different isotopes of the carbon atoms decay, suggested the shroud was made between A. What's more, the Gospel of Matthew notes that "the earth shook, the rocks split and the tombs broke open" after Jesus was crucified."The plant DNA could be from many sources, and there is no way of finding the right source," Enevold told Live Science in an email."Also, the sub-genus level of taxon that has been reached is not near enough to the species level that is needed to determine the area of origin for each plant." The researchers also mistakenly relied on an interpretative method that is used to analyze thousands of grains of pollen in a lake, she said.[Religious Mysteries: 8 Alleged Relics of Jesus] According to legend, the shroud was secretly carried from Judea in A. 30 or 33, and was housed in Edessa, Turkey, and Constantinople (the name for Istanbul before the Ottomans took over) for centuries. So geologists have argued that an earthquake at Jesus' death could have released a burst of neutrons.The neutron burst not only would have thrown off the radiocarbon dating but also would have led to the darkened imprint on the shroud. In the current study, Barcaccia and his colleagues analyzed dust that they vacuumed from the shroud that contained traces of both plant and human DNA.In these studies, both old Russian and old Middle Eastern (En Gedi, Israel,100) linen textile samples were tested by near-IR reflectance spectrophotometry, field ionization/field desorption mass spectrometry, and conventional AMS analysis.We found that the different fire-simulating model conditions were able to promote the carboxylation of unscreened OH-groups in textile cellulose molecules.